Sprawl has integrated formerly distinct barrios (rural and suburban neighborhoods), cities, and towns.

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Americans, Cubans, and Dominicans tend to consider their presence in Puerto Rico temporary. Spanish and English are the official languages, but Puerto Rico is overwhelmingly Spanish speaking, despite government efforts to eradicate Spanish or foster bilingualism.

Puerto Rican Spanish is a dialect of standard Spanish that has its own particularities.

Chinese labor was introduced in the nineteenth century, and immigrants came from Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque provinces, Galicia, and the Canary Islands.

Threatened by Latin America's nineteenth century revolutions, Spain facilitated immigration through economic incentives, attracting other nationalities as loyalists fled republican uprisings. occupation increased the American presence, and the 1959 revolution in Cuba brought an estimated 23,000 Cubans.

The total land area, including the smaller islands, is 3,427 square miles (8,875 square kilometers).

The tropical island ecosystem is unique and diversified in spite of industrialization and urban sprawl.

Although the Spanish introduced slavery to replace a dwindling Taíno labor force, slavery never reached large proportions until the plantation system was fully implemented in the nineteenth century.

However, there was a significant African influx of slave, indentured, and free labor.

But many fled into the highlands or intermarried: Spanish immigration to the island was mostly male and interracial relations less stigmatizing than among Anglo settlers.

The contemporary revival of Taíno identity is partially based on the survival of Taíno highland communities.

The nineteenth century also brought Corsican, French, German, Lebanese, Scottish, Italian, Irish, English, and American immigration. Many Dominicans immigrated in search of economic opportunities; some use Puerto Rico as a port of entry into the United States.